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Digital Image Capture and Processing

Section Overview:

The Olympus MIC-D inverted digital microscope captures images with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor housed in the base and coupled to a host computer for acquisition, cataloging and processing of digital images.

Review Articles

Interface software features include single image, full-motion video, and time-lapse sequence capture modes, in addition to a well-fortified cadre of image processing algorithms and an advanced image management system (see Figure 1). Digital images captured with the MIC-D microscope can be sorted, edited, corrected, and prepared for presentation, either electronically or through print media, with the accompanying software.

  • Introduction to CMOS Image Sensors

    CMOS sensors have accounted for increasing numbers of the imaging devices marketed in applications such as fax machines, scanners, security cameras, toys, games, PC cameras and low-end consumer cameras.

  • Basic Properties of Digital Images

    Addressed in this discussion is the acquisition, sampling, and quantization of digital images as well as other important concepts, such as spatial resolution and dynamic range.

  • Basic Concepts in Digital Image Processing

    Digital image processing enables a reversible noise-free modification of an image in the form of a matrix of integers instead of the classical darkroom manipulations or filtration of time-dependent voltages for images and video signals.

  • MIC-D Interface Software Capture Window

    The software panel featured can be employed to capture single images, time-lapse sequence, or full-motion video sequences and save these image or audiovisual files to specific locations on the host computer's hard drive.

  • MIC-D Interface Software Image Processing Window

    Single images captured by the MIC-D software, or other images saved in selected file formats, can be individually edited with a collection of image processing tools housed in the Image Processing Window.

  • Recommended Strategy for Processing Digital Images

    Depending upon the illumination conditions and preparation methods, digital images captured in the optical microscope may require rehabilitation to achieve a balance between scientific accuracy and aesthetic composition.

  • MIC-D Interface Software Library Window

    The MIC-D software Library Window can be utilized to view and select one or more images from a collection acquired during the current imaging session, or from a previously acquired group of images.

  • Time-Lapse Cinemicrography

    Time-lapse cinemicrography is a valuable tool for studying a wide variety of dynamic events, ranging from protracted particle motion and slowly recrystallizing chemicals to cellular movement and division.

  • Background Subtraction Toolkit

    A discussion concerning the Olympus Background Subtraction Toolkit, which is designed to assist image processing applications by providing uniform backgrounds for specimens captured with the MIC-D digital microscope.

  • Background Subtraction Toolkit Download

    The Background Subtraction Toolkit is a program designed for the Windows operating system, which can be utilized to produce uniform backgrounds for digital images captured with this inverted optical microscope.

Interactive Java Tutorials

  • MIC-D Digital Microscope Interface Software

    Explore functions of the interface software with a selection of single images, zoom sequences, and full-motion video produced by the actual software in this featured interactive java tutorial.

  • Background Subtraction

    Learn more about a background subtraction image processing technique that relies on the creation of a background image from the original digital image in this interactive tutorial.

  • Balancing Color in Digital Images

    The featured interactive java tutorial initializes with a randomly selected image, captured in the MIC-D digital microscope, appearing in the left-hand window entitled Specimen Image.

  • Brightness and Contrast in Digital Images

    Contrast refers to the amount of color or grayscale differentiation between various image features in both analog and digital images. See the range of adjustment possible in image brightness and contrast manipulation.

  • Convolution Kernel Mask Operation

    Many image-processing methods utilize multipixel operations where each output pixel is altered by contributions from adjoining input pixels. Explore how a convolution operation is performed on a digital image.

  • Gamma Correction

    The brightness of an image captured with a microscope is dependent on the conditions of specimen illumination and the sensitivity/linearity of the detector. The effects are characterized by a variable known as gamma.

  • Gray-Level Resolution

    The MIC-D microscope is equipped with a CMOS image sensor that captures images in red, green, and blue (RGB) true color mode. See variations in digital image gray-level resolution, and how it affects the appearance of the image.

  • JPEG Image Compression

    The JPEG lossy image compression standard is currently in worldwide use, and is becoming a critical element in the storage of digital images. Learn more about compression of digital images with the JPEG algorithm.

  • Adjustment of Digital Image Sharpness

    The sharpness of a digital image refers to the degree of clarity in both coarse and fine specimen detail. Explore the range of sharpness with selected digital images in this interactive tutorial.

  • Digital Image Sampling Frequency

    To match the optical and electronic resolution of a microscope and camera system, an image should have a decent number of samples so the display represents the original signal presented to the digitizing device.

  • Spatial Resolution

    Spatial resolution is a term that refers to the number of pixels utilized in construction of a digital image. Explore variations in digital image spatial resolution, and how these values affect the final appearance of the image.

  • Cropping, Zooming, and Repositioning Digital Images

    Digital images are often arranged on the output display device for purposes of visually comparing image details, or for illustrating differences between two or more images.

  • White and Black Balance

    In color digital camera systems that use either charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, white and/or black balance (baseline) adjustment is often necessary to produce acceptable color quality in digital images.

Contributing Authors

Kenneth R. Spring - Scientific Consultant, Lusby, Maryland, 20657.

John C. Russ - Materials Science and Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27695.

Thomas J. Fellers and Michael W. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.

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