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Selected Literature References

Section Overview:

A number of high-quality books and review articles on polarized light microscopy have been published by leading researchers in the field. This section contains periodical location information about these articles, as well as providing a listing of selected original research reports and books describing the classical techniques of optical crystallography and polarized light microscopy.


  • Optical Crystallography, Bloss, D., Mineralogical Society of America, MSA Monograph Number 5, Washington, D.C., 239 pages (1999).
  • Crystal Identification with the Polarizing Microscope, Stoiber, R. and Morse, S., Chapman and Hall, New York, 358 pages (1994).
  • Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, Bloss, D., Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 545 pages (1994).
  • Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications, Collett, E., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 581 pages (1993).
  • Qualtitative Polarized Light Microscopy, Robinson, P. and Bradbury, S., Oxford Science Publications (RMS), Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 121 pages (1992).
  • Introduction to Optical Mineralogy, Nesse, W., Oxford University Press, New York, 335 pages (1991).
  • Transmitted Polarised Light Microscopy, Viney, C., McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, 180 pages (1990).
  • Polarized Light Microscopy, McCrone, W., McCrone, L., and Delly, J., McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, 251 pages (1984).
  • Crystals and Light: An Introduction to Optical Crystallography, Wood, E., Dover Publications, New York, 156 pages (1977).
  • The Polarizing Microscope, Hallimond, A., Vickers Instruments, York, United Kingdom, 302 pages (1970).
  • An Introduction to the Methods of Optical Crystallography, Bloss, D., Saunders College Publishing, New York, 294 pages (1961).
  • Crystals and the Polarizing Microscope, Hartshorne, N. and Stuart, A., Edward Arnold and Company, London, 473 pages (1950).
  • Handbook of Chemical Microscopy, Chamot, E. and Mason, C., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 478 pages (1938).

Review Articles

  • Image contrast and phase modulation light methods in polarization and interference microscopy., Allen, R., Brault, J., and Zeh, R., Adv. Opt. Electron Microsc.: 1, 77-114 (1966).
  • The microscopical investigation of biological materials with polarized light., McClung, C., Handbook of Microscopical Technique, 591-677 (1950).
  • Chromosome movements during cell division., Forer, A., Handbook of Molecular Cytology, 553-601 (1969).
  • Microspectrophotometry and optical phenomena: Birefringence, dichroism and anomalous dispersion., Enoch, J., and Tobey, F., Springer Series in Optical Sciences: 23, 337-399 (1981).
  • Polarizing microscope: Design for maximum sensitivity., Inoue, S., The Encyclopedia of Microscopy, 480-485 (1961).
  • The physics of structural organization in living cells.., Inoue, S., Biological and the Physical Sciences, 139-171 (1969).
  • In vivo analysis of mitotic spindle dynamics., Inoue, S., Kiehard, D., Cell Reproduction : In Honor of Daniel Mazia, 433-444 (1978).
  • Arrangement of DNA molecules in the sperm nucleus : An optical approach to the analysis of biological fine structure., Inoue, S., Sato, H. Biophysical Science Series 3, Progress in Genetics III, 151-220 (1966).
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid arrangements in living sperm., Inoue, S., Sato, H. Molecular Architecture in Cell Physiology, 209-248 (1966).
  • Dichrosim and dichroic polarizers., Land, E., West, C., Collaid Chemistry: 6, 160-190 (1946).
  • Absorption and pleochroism: Two much-neglected optical properties of crystals., Mandarino, J., American Mineral: 4, 65-76 (1959).
  • Giant molecules., Mark, H., Scientific American: 197, 80-89 (1957).
  • Birefringence and dichroism., Oster, G., Physical Techniques in Biological Research: 1, 439-460 (1955).
  • Crystal Optics., Ramachandran, G., Ramaseshan, S., Handbuch der Phik,: Vol. XXV/I, 1-217 (1961).
  • Birefringence and dichroism of cells and tissues., Ruch, F., Physical Techniques in Biological Research: 3, 149-176 (1956).
  • On the use of polarized light in pathology., Wolman, M., Pathology Annual, 381-416 (1970).

Original Research Reports

  • A new method of polarizing microscope analysis. I. Scanning with a birefringence detector system., Allen, R., Brault, J., and Moore, D., Journal of Cell Biology: 18, 223-235 (1963).
  • Polarized light observations on striated muscle contraction in a mite., Aronson, J., Journal of Cell Biology: 32, 169-179 (1967).
  • The measurement of small retardation with the polarizing microscope., Bear, R., and Schmitt, O. J. Opt. Soc. Am.: 26, 363-364 (1936).
  • Birefringence of spermatozoa. II. Form Birefringence of bull sperm., Bendet, I., and Bearden, J., Journal of Cell Biology: 55, 501-510 (1972).
  • The Form birefringence of macromolecules., Bragg, W., and Pippard, A., Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. B: 6, 865-867 (1953).
  • On new properties of heat, as exhibited in its propagation along plates of glass., Brewster, D., Philos. Trans.: 106, 46-114 (1816).
  • On the laws of polarization and double refraction in regularly crystallized bodies., Brewster, D., Philos. Trans.: 108, 199-273 (1818).
  • Intrinsic birefringence of poly-y-benzyl-L-glutamate, a helical polypeptide, and the theory of birefringence., Cassim, J., and Taylor, W., Biophys. J.: 5, 531-551 (1965).
  • Birefringence of muscle proteins and the problem of structural birefringence., Cassim, J., Tobias, P., and Taylor, W., Biochim. Acta.: 168, 463-471 (1968).
  • Light scattering and birefringence changes during activity in the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus., Cohen, L., Hille, B., and Keynes, D., J. Physiol. (London): 203, 489-509 (1969).
  • Light scattering and birefringence changes during nerve activity., Cohen, L., Hille, B., and Keynes, D., Nature: 218, 438-441 (1968).
  • Configurations and Interactions of Macro-Molecules and Liquid Crystals., Discuss. Faraday Soc.: 25, 1-235 (1958).
  • Birefringence of isolated muscle fibers in twitch and tetanus., Eberstein, A., and Rosenfalck, A., Acta Physiol. scand.: 57, 144-166 (1963).
  • Actin filaments and birefringent spindle fibers during chromosome movement ., Foldman, R., Pollard, T., and Rosenbaum, J., Cell Motility: 3, 1273-1293 (1976).
  • Spindle birefringence and isolated mitotic apparatus: Further evidence for two birefringent spindle components., Forer, A., Kalnins, V., and Zimmerman, A., Journal of Cell Science: 22, 115-131 (1976).
  • The structure and some properties of the isolated mitotic apparatus., Goldman, R., and Rebhun, L., Journal of Cell Science: 4, 179-209 (1969).
  • Quantitative studies on the polarization optical properties of living cells. I. Microphotometric birefringence detection system ., Hiramoto, Y., Hamaguchi, Y., and Shimoda, S., Journal of Cell Biology: 89, 115-20 (1981).
  • Quantitative studies on the polarization optical properties of living cells. II. The role of microtubules in birefringence of the spindle of the sea urchin egg., Hiramoto, Y., Hamaguchi, Y., Shoji, Y., Schroeder, E., Shimoda, S., and Nakamura, S., Journal of Cell Biology: 89, 121-130 (1981).
  • A generalized intensity formula for a system of retardation plates., Hsien, Y., Richartz, M., and Yung, L., J. Opt. Soc. Am.: 37, 99-106 (1947).
  • A method for measuring small retardations of structures in living cells., Inoue, S., Exp. Cell Res.: 2, 513-517 (1951).
  • Studies on depolarization of light at microscope lens surfaces. 1. The origin of stray light by rotation at the lens surfaces., Inoue, S., Exp. Cell Res.: 3, 199-208 (1952).
  • Video image processing greatly enhances contrast, quality, and speed in polarization based microscopy., Inoue, S., Journal of Cell Biology: 89, 346-356 (1981).
  • Birefringence in endosperm mitosis., Inoue, S., Chromosoma: 12, 48-63 (1961).
  • Studies on depolarization of light at microscope lens surfaces. II. The simultaneous realization of high resolution and high sensitivity with the polarizing microscope., Inoue, S., and Hyde, W., J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol.: 3, 831-838 (1957).
  • Diffraction anomaly in polarizing microscopes., Inoue, S., and Kubota, H., Nature: 182, 1725-1726 (1958).
  • Biocrystals., Inoue, S., and Okazaki, K., Sci. Am.: 236 (4) , 82-92 (1978).
  • Arrangement of DNA in living sperm: A biophysical analysis., Inoue, S., and Sato, H., Science: 136, 1122-1124 (1962).
  • Optical compensators for measurement of elliptical polarization., Jerrard, H., J. Opt. Soc. Am.: 38, 35-59 (1948).
  • Diffraction images in the polarizing microscope., Kubota, H., and Inoue, S., J. Opt. Soc. Am.: 49, 191-198 (1959).
  • Some aspects of the development of sheet polarizers., Land, E., J. Opt. Soc. Am.: 41, 957-963 (1951).
  • Intrinsic birefringence of multiple coiled DNA, theory and applications., Maestre, M., and Kilkson, R., Biophys. J.: 5, 275-287 (1965).
  • Film polarizer for visible and ultraviolet radiation., Makas, A., J. Opt. Soc. Am.: 52, 43-44 (1962).
  • Reversible restoration of the birefringence of cold-treated, isolated mitotic apparatus of surf clam eggs with chick brain tubulin., Rebhun, L., Rosenbaum, J., Lefebvre, P., and Smith, G., Nature: 249, 113-115 (1974).
  • Analysis of elliptical polarization., Richartz, M., and Hsu, Y., J. Opt. Soc. Am.: 39, 136-157 (1948).
  • A new miniature hydrostatic pressure chamber for microscopy: Strain-free optical glass windows facilitate phase contrast and polarized light microscopy of living cells. Optional fixture permits simultaneous control of pressure and temperature., Salmon, E., and Ellis, G., J. Cell. Biol.: 65, 587-602 (1975).
  • Compensator transducer increases ease, accuracy and rapidity of measuring changes in specimen birefringence with polarization microscopy., Salmon, E., and Ellis, G., Journal of Microscopy: 106, 63-69 (1976).
  • Analysis of form birefringence in the mitotic spindle., Sato, H., Am. Zool.: 9, 592 (1969).
  • Refinements in polarized light microscopy., Swann, M., and Mitchison, J., Journal of Experimental Biology: 27, 266-237 (1950).
  • Birefringence changes in vertebrate striated muscle., Taylor, D., J. Supramol. Struct.: 3, 181-191 (1975).
  • Quantitative studies on the polarization optical properties of striated muscle. I. Birefringence changes of rabbit psoas muscle in the transition from rigor to relaxed state., Taylor, D., Journal of Cell Biology: 68, 497-511 (1976).
  • Methods for the measurement of polarization optical properties. I. Birefringence., Taylor, D., and Zeh, R., Journal of Microscopy: 108, 251-259 (1976).
  • Birefringence of protein solutions and biological systems., Taylor, E., and Cramer, W., Biophys. J.: 3, 127-141 (1963).
  • On the properties of polarization elements as used in optical instruments. I. Fundamental considerations., West, C., and Jones, C., J. Opt. Soc. Am.: 41, 976-986 (1951).

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