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Selected Literature References

Section Overview:

Because of the significant role played by optical microscopy in industrial and clinical applications, issues concerning ergonomic aspects of the instrumentation have received considerable attention. In particular, articles focused on repetitive stress injury and cumulative trauma disorder carefully review ergonomic aspects of microscope and workstation design, and suggest solutions to medical problems. The references listed in this section were employed in the review material and interactive tutorials assembled for the ergonomics discussions in the microscopy primer.


  • Occupational Biomechanics., Chaffin, D. and Andersson, G., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 579 pages (1999).
  • Measurement of Joint Motion: A guide to goniometry (2nd Edition)., Norkin, C. and White, D., F. A. Davis, New York, 241 pages (1995).
  • Human Factors in Engineering and Design., Sanders, M. and McCormick, E., McGraw-Hill, New York, 790 pages (1993).
  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders: A Manual For Musculoskeletal Diseases of the Upper Body., Putz-Anderson, V. (ed), Taylor and Francis, Inc., New York, 151 pages (1992).
  • Ergonomics, Work and Health., Pheasant, S., Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland, 358 pages (1991).

Review and Research Articles

  • Considerations in microscope design to avoid cumulative trauma disorder in clinical laboratory applications., Vratny, M., American Clinical Laboratory, April, 86-87 (1999).
  • Underestimated health hazard: proposal for an ergonomic microscope workstation., Kreczy, A., Kofler, M. and Gschwendtner, A., Lancet, 354, 1701-1702 (1999).
  • Laboratory ergonomics, the wake-up call: A case study., Hoskins, D. and Erickson, J., Chemical Health and Safety, 5, 20-23 (1998).
  • Measurement variability in upper extremity posture among VDT users., Ortiz, D., Marcus, M., Gerr, F., Jones, W., and Cohen, S., Applied Ergonomics, 28, 139-143 (1997).
  • Occupational physical activity and long-term risk of musculoskeletal symptoms: a national survey of post office pensioners., Sobti, A., Cooper, C., Inskip, H., Searle, S., and Coggon, D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 32, 76-83 (1997).
  • Repetitive motion injuries., Guteri, G., ADVANCE for Medical Laboratory Professionals, 9, 7-10 (1997).
  • Repetitive strain injuries., Yassi, A., Lancet, 349, 943-947 (1997).
  • When pain brings no gain., Johnston, V., Laboratory Medicine, 28, 381-386 (1997).
  • Musculoskeletal symptoms among cytotechnologists., Kalavar, S. and Hunting, K., Laboratory Medicine, 27, 765-769 (1996).
  • Microscope use., Putz-Anderson, V., Howard Hughes Medical Institute EHS Conference, Washington, D.C., April (1995).
  • Microscope use., James, T., Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 39th Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, pages 573-577 (1995).
  • Applying ergonomics to improve microscopy work., Haines, H. and McAtamney, L., Microscopy and Analysis, 17-19, July (1993).
  • Planning and implementation of microscope work., Helander, M. and Prabhu, P., Applied Ergonomics, 22, 36-42 (1991).
  • Sitting posture: an old problem and a new one., Grieco, A., Ergonomics, 29, 345-362 (1986).
  • Besondere belastungen am Mikrosckoparbeitsplatz., Krueger, H., Conrady, P., and Zülch, J., Soz-Präventivmed, 31, 250-251 (1986).
  • Physical stress reduction of microscope operators., Lee, K. and Humphreys, L., Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 29th Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, pages 433-437 (1985).