## Table of Contents

**Complete version: 44 Chapters i**ncluding 9 Chapters of modern physics.

**Classic version: 37 Chapters,** 35 on classical physics, plus one each on relativity and quantum theory.

**3 Volume version: Available separately or packaged together.**

- **Volume 1: Chapters 1-20** on mechanics, including fluids, oscillations, waves, plus heat and thermodynamics.

- **Volume 2: Chapters 21-35** on electricity and magnetism, plus light and optics.

- **Volume 3: Chapters 36-44** on modern physics: relativity, quantum theory, atomic physics, condensed matter, nuclear physics, elementary particles, cosmology and astrophysics.

*Sections marked with a star * may be considered optional.*

**1. Introduction, Measurement, Estimating**

1.1 How Science Works

1.2 Models, Theories, and Laws

1.3 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures

1.4 Units, Standards, and the SI System

1.5 Converting Units

1.6 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating

*1.7 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis

**2. Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension**

2.1 Reference Frames and Displacement

2.2 Average Velocity

2.3 Instantaneous Velocity

2.4 Acceleration

2.5 Motion at Constant Acceleration

2.6 Solving Problems

2.7 Freely Falling Objects

*2.8 Variable Acceleration; Integral Calculus

**3. Kinematics in Two or Three Dimensions; Vectors**

3.1 Vectors and Scalars

3.2 Addition of Vectors--Graphical Methods

3.3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar

3.4 Adding Vectors by Components

3.5 Unit Vectors

3.6 Vector Kinematics

3.7 Projectile Motion

3.8 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion

3.9 Relative Velocity

**4. Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion**

4.1 Force

4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion

4.3 Mass

4.4 Newton's Second Law of Motion

4.5 Newton's Third Law of Motion

4.6 Weight--the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force

4.7 Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagrams

4.8 Problem Solving--A General Approach

**5. Using Newton's Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces**

5.1 Using Newton's Laws with Friction

5.2 Uniform Circular Motion--Kinematics

5.3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

5.4 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked

5.5 Nonuniform Circular Motion

*5.6 Velocity-Dependent Forces: Drag and Terminal Velocity

**6. Gravitation and Newton's Synthesis**

6.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

6.2 Vector Form of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

6.3 Gravity Near the Earth's Surface

6.4 Satellites and "Weightlessness"

6.5 Planets, Kepler's Laws, and Newton's Synthesis

6.6 Moon Rises an Hour Later Each Day

6.7 Types of Forces in Nature

*6.8 Gravitational Field

*6.9 Principle of Equivalence; Curvature of Space; Black Holes

**7. Work and Energy**

7.1 Work Done by a Constant Force

7.2 Scalar Product of Two Vectors

7.3 Work Done by a Varying Force

7.4 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle

**8. Conservation of Energy**

8.1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

8.2 Potential Energy

8.3 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation

8.4 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy

8.5 The Law of Conservation of Energy

8.6 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems

8.7 Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity

8.8 Power

8.9 Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium

*8.10 Gravitational Assist (Slingshot)

**9. Linear Momentum**

9.1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force

9.2 Conservation of Momentum

9.3 Collisions and Impulse

9.4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions

9.5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension

9.6 Inelastic Collisions

9.7 Collisions in 2 or 3 Dimensions

9.8 Center of Mass (cm)

9.9 Center of Mass and Translational Motion

*9.10 Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion

**10. Rotational Motion**

10.1 Angular Quantities

10.2 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

10.3 Constant Angular Acceleration

10.4 Torque

10.5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia

10.6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics

10.7 Determining Moments of Inertia

10.8 Rotational Kinetic Energy

10.9 Rotational plus Translational Motion; Rolling

*10.10 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down?

**11. Angular Momentum; General Rotation**

11.1 Angular Momentum--Objects Rotating About a Fixed Axis

11.2 Vector Cross Product; Torque as a Vector

11.3 Angular Momentum of a Particle

11.4 Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion

11.5 Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Object

11.6 Conservation of Angular Momentum

*11.7 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope

11.8 Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces

*11.9 The Coriolis Effect

**12. Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture**

12.1 The Conditions for Equilibrium

12.2 Solving Statics Problems

*12.3 Applications to Muscles and Joints

12.4 Stability and Balance

12.5 Elasticity; Stress and Strain

12.6 Fracture

*12.7 Trusses and Bridges

*12.8 Arches and Domes

**13. Fluids**

13.1 Phases of Matter

13.2 Density and Specific Gravity

13.3 Pressure in Fluids

13.4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure

13.5 Pascal's Principle

13.6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer

13.7 Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle

13.8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity

13.9 Bernoulli's Equation

13.10 Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, Blood Flow

13.11 Viscosity

*13.12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flow

*13.13 Surface Tension and Capillarity

*13.14 Pumps, and the Heart

**14. Oscillations**

14.1 Oscillations of a Spring

14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

14.3 Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

14.4 Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion

14.5 The Simple Pendulum

*14.6 The Physical Pendulum and the Torsion Pendulum

14.7 Damped Harmonic Motion

14.8 Forced Oscillations; Resonance

**15. Wave Motion**

15.1 Characteristics of Wave Motion

15.2 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal

15.3 Energy Transported by Waves

15.4 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave

*15.5 The Wave Equation

15.6 The Principle of Superposition

15.7 Reflection and Transmission

15.8 Interference

15.9 Standing Waves; Resonance

15.10 Refraction

15.11 Diffraction

**16. Sound**

16.1 Characteristics of Sound

16.2 Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves

16.3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels

16.4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns

*16.5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition

16.6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats

16.7 Doppler Effect

*16.8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom

*16.9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging

**17. Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law**

17.1 Atomic Theory of Matter

17.2 Temperature and Thermometers

17.3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

17.4 Thermal Expansion

*17.5 Thermal Stresses

17.6 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature

17.7 The Ideal Gas Law

17.8 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law

17.9 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number

*17.10 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale--a Standard

**18. Kinetic Theory of Gases**

18.1 The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature

18.2 Distribution of Molecular Speeds

18.3 Real Gases and Changes of Phase

18.4 Vapor Pressure and Humidity

18.5 Temperature of Water Decrease with Altitude

18.6 Van der Waals Equation of State

18.7 Mean Free Path

18.8 Diffusion

**19. Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics**

19.1 Heat as Energy Transfer

19.2 Internal Energy

19.3 Specific Heat

19.4 Calorimetry--Solving Problems

19.5 Latent Heat

19.6 The First Law of Thermodynamics

19.7 Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law

19.8 Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy

19.9 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas

19.10 Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation

**20. Second Law of Thermodynamics**

20.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics--Introduction

20.2 Heat Engines

20.3 The Carnot Engine; Reversible and Irreversible Processes

20.4 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

20.5 Entropy

20.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

20.7 Order to Disorder

20.8 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death

20.9 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law

*20.10 Thermodynamic Temperature; Third Law of Thermodynamics

20.11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources

**21. Electric Charge and Electric Field**

21.1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation

21.2 Electric Charge in the Atom

21.3 Insulators and Conductors

21.4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope

21.5 Coulomb's Law

21.6 The Electric Field

21.7 Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions

21.8 Field Lines

21.9 Electric Fields and Conductors

21.10 Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field

21.11 Electric Dipoles

*21.12 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology: DNA Structure and Replication

**22. Gauss's Law**

22.1 Electric Flux

22.2 Gauss's Law

22.3 Applications of Gauss's Law

*22.4 Experimental Basis of Gauss's and Coulomb's Laws

**23. Electric Potential**

23.1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference

23.2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field

23.3 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges

23.4 Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution

23.5 Equipotential Lines and Surfaces

23.6 Potential Due to Electric Dipole; Dipole Moment

23.7 EDetermined from* V*

23.8 Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt

23.9 Digital; Binary Numbers; Signal Voltage

*23.10 TV and Computer Monitors

*23.11 Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

**24. Capacitance, Dielectrics, Electric Energy Storage**

24.1 Capacitors

24.2 Determination of Capacitance

24.3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel

24.4 Storage of Electric Energy

24.5 Dielectrics

*24.6 Molecular Description of Dielectrics

**25. Electric Current and Resistance**

25.1 The Electric Battery

25.2 Electric Current

25.3 Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors

25.4 Resistivity

25.5 Electric Power

25.6 Power in Household Circuits

25.7 Alternating Current

25.8 Microscopic View of Electric Current

*25.9 Superconductivity

*25.10 Electrical Conduction in the Human Nervous System

**26. DC Circuits**

26.1 EMF and Terminal Voltage

26.2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel

26.3 Kirchhoff's Rules

26.4 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery

26.5 RC Circuits--Resistor and Capacitor in Series

26.6 Electric Hazards and Safety

26.7 Ammeters and Voltmeters--Measurement Affects Quantity Measured

**27. Magnetism**

27.1 Magnets and Magnetic Fields

27.2 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields

27.3 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B

27.4 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field

27.5 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment

27.6 Applications: Motors, Loudspeakers, Galvanometers

27.7 Discovery and Properties of the Electron

27.8 The Hall Effect

27.9 Mass Spectrometer

**28. Sources of Magnetic Field**

28.1 Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire

28.2 Force between Two Parallel Wires

28.3 Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb

28.4 Ampère's Law

28.5 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid

28.6 Biot-Savart Law

28.7 Magnetic Field Due to a Single Moving Charge

28.8 Magnetic Materials--Ferromagnetism

28.9 Electromagnets and Solenoids--Applications

28.10 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis

*28.11 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism

**29. Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law**

29.1 Induced EMF

29.2 Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law

29.3 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor

29.4 Electric Generators

29.5 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents

29.6 Transformers and Transmission of Power

29.7A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field

*29.8 Information Storage: Magnetic and Semiconductor

*29.9 Applications of Induction: Microphone, Seismograph, GFCI

**30. Inductance, Electromagnetic Oscillations, and AC Circuits**

30.1 Mutual Inductance

30.2 Self-Inductance; Inductors

30.3 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

30.4 LR Circuits

30.5 LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations

30.6 LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit)

30.7 AC Circuits and Reactance

30.8 LRC Series AC Circuit; Phasor Diagrams

30.9 Resonance in AC Circuits

30.10 Impedance Matching

*30.11 Three-Phase AC

**31. Maxwell's Equations and Electromagnetic Waves**

31.1 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Displacement Current

31.2 Gauss's Law for Magnetism

31.3 Maxwell's Equations

31.4 Production of Electromagnetic Waves

31.5 Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, Derived from Maxwell's Equations

31.6 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

31.7 Measuring the Speed of Light

31.8 Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector

31.9 Radiation Pressure

31.10 Radio and Television; Wireless Communication

**32. Light: Reflection and Refraction**

32.1 The Ray Model of Light

32.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror

32.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors

32.4 Seeing Yourself in a Magnifying Mirror (Concave)

32.5 Convex (Rearview) Mirrors

32.6 Index of Refraction

32.7 Refraction: Snell's Law

32.8 The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion

32.9 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics

*32.10 Refraction at a Spherical Surface

**33. Lenses and Optical Instruments**

33.1 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing and Focal Length

33.2 The Thin Lens Equation

33.3 Combinations of Lenses

33.4 Lensmaker's Equation

33.5 Cameras: Film and Digital

33.6 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses

33.7 Magnifying Glass

33.8 Telescopes

33.9 Compound Microscope

33.10 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors

**34. The Wave Nature of Light: Interference and Polarization**

34.1 Waves vs. Particles; Huygens' Principle and Diffraction

34.2 Huygens' Principle and the Law of Refraction

34.3 Interference--Young's Double-Slit Experiment

34.4 Intensity in the Double-Slit Interference Pattern

34.5 Interference in Thin Films

34.6 Michelson Interferometer

34.7 Polarization

*34.8 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

*34.9 Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere

34.10 Lumens, Luminous Flux, and Luminous Intensity

*34.11 Efficiency of Lightbulbs

**35. Diffraction**

35.1 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk

35.2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern

35.3 Diffraction in the Double-Slit Experiment

35.4 Interference vs. Diffraction

35.5 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures

35.6 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the Limit

35.7 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification

35.8 Diffraction Grating

35.9 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy

*35.10 Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating

35.11 X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction

*35.12 X-Ray Imaging and Computed Tomography (CT Scan)

*35.13 Specialty Microscopes and Contrast

**36. The Special Theory of Relativity**

36.1 Galilean.Newtonian Relativity

36.2 The Michelson.Morley Experiment

36.3 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity

36.4 Simultaneity

36.5 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox

36.6 Length Contraction

36.7 Four-Dimensional Space.Time

36.8 Galilean and Lorentz Transformations

36.9 Relativistic Momentum

36.10 The Ultimate Speed

36.11 E = mc2; Mass and Energy

36.12 Doppler Shift for Light

36.13 The Impact of Special Relativity

**37. Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom**

37.1 Blackbody Radiation; Planck's Quantum Hypothesis

37.2 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect

37.3 Energy, Mass, and Momentum of a Photon

37.4 Compton Effect

37.5 Photon Interactions; Pair Production

37.6 Wave.Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity

37.7 Wave Nature of Matter

37.8 Electron Microscopes

37.9 Early Models of the Atom

37.10 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom

37.11 The Bohr Model

37.12 de Broglie's Hypothesis Applied to Atoms

**38. Quantum Mechanics**

38.1 Quantum Mechanics--A New Theory

38.2 The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment

38.3 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

38.4 Philosophic Implications; Probability Versus Determinism

38.5 The Schrödinger Equation in One Dimension-- Time-Independent Form

*38.6 Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation

38.7 Free Particles; Plane Waves and Wave Packets

38.8 Particle in an Infinitely Deep Square Well Potential (a Rigid Box)

38.9 Finite Potential Well

38.10 Tunneling through a Barrier

**39. Quantum Mechanics of Atoms**

39.1 Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms

39.2 Hydrogen Atom: Schrödinger Equation and Quantum Numbers

39.3 Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions

39.4 Multielectron Atoms; the Exclusion Principle

39.5 Periodic Table of Elements

39.6 X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number

*39.7 Magnetic Dipole Moment; Total Angular Momentum

39.8 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

39.9 Lasers

*39.10 Holography

**40. Molecules and Solids**

40.1 Bonding in Molecules

40.2 Potential-Energy Diagrams for Molecules

40.3 Weak (van der Waals) Bonds

40.4 Molecular Spectra

40.5 Bonding in Solids

40.6 Free-Electron Theory of Metals; Fermi Energy

40.7 Band Theory of Solids

40.8 Semiconductors and Doping

40.9 Semiconductor Diodes, LEDs, OLEDs

40.10 Transistors: Bipolar and MOSFETs

40.11 Integrated Circuits, 14-nm Technology

**41. Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity**

41.1 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus

41.2 Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces

41.3 Radioactivity

41.4 Alpha Decay

41.5 Beta Decay

41.6 Gamma Decay

41.7 Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws

41.8 Half-Life and Rate of Decay

41.9 Decay Series

41.10 Radioactive Dating

41.11 Detection of Particles

**42. Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation**

42.1 Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements

42.2 Cross Section

42.3 Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors

42.4 Nuclear Fusion

42.5 Passage of Radiation Through Matter; Biological Damage

42.6 Measurement of Radiation--Dosimetry

*42.7 Radiation Therapy

*42.8 Tracers in Research and Medicine

*42.9 Emission Tomography: PET and SPECT

*42.10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

**43. Elementary Particles**

43.1 High-Energy Particles and Accelerators

43.2 Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics--Particle Exchange

43.3 Particles and Antiparticles

43.4 Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws

43.5 Neutrinos

43.6 Particle Classification

43.7 Particle Stability and Resonances

43.8 Strangeness? Charm? Towards a New Model

43.9 Quarks

43.10 The Standard Model: QCD and Electroweak Theory

43.11 Grand Unified Theories

43.12 Strings and Supersymmetry

**44. Astrophysics and Cosmology**

44.1 Stars and Galaxies

44.2 Stellar Evolution: Birth and Death of Stars, Nucleosynthesis

44.3 Distance Measurements

44.4 General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space

44.5 The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble's Law

44.6 The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background

44.7 The Standard Cosmological Model: Early History of the Universe

44.8I nflation: Explaining Flatness, Uniformity, and Structure

44.9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy

44.10 Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

44.11 Gravitational Waves--LIGO

44.12 Finally . . .

Appendix A Mathematical Formulas

Appendix B Derivatives and Integrals

Appendix C Numerical Integration

Appendix D More on Dimensional Analysis

Appendix E Gravitational Force Due to a Spherical Mass Distribution

Appendix F Differential Form of Maxwell's Equations

Appendix G Selected Isotopes

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