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Köhler Illumination Interactive Java Tutorials

Section Overview:

We have constructed a variety of Java tutorials designed to help students grasp the fundamental details of Köhler illumination and how a microscope is adjusted for this purpose. Please use the links below to visit the tutorials in our collection.

  • Condenser Alignment

    Learn to align the most important optical components in a microscope with this tutorial. Students can practice centering the condenser and setting the field diaphragm to its optimum size for photomicrography.

  • Condenser Light Cones

    Explore how changes in the size of the condenser aperture affect the shape and size of the light cone (and numerical aperture) emitted from the condenser in this interactive tutorial.

  • Condenser Aperture Diaphragm Adjustment

    Discover how the aperture diaphragm of the substage condenser can be monitored with a Bertrand lens (or by removing the eyepiece) to optimize numerical aperture, image resolution, depth of field, and overall image quality.

  • Conjugate Planes

    Discover and learn how various conjugate plane sets pass through focus together when a microscope is properly aligned for optimum Köhler illumination in this interactive tutorial.

  • Lamp Filament Alignment

    Examine all of the aspects of adjusting both the voltage and the position of the lamp filament, and ensuring that the filament completely fills the back focal plane of the objective in this tutorial.

  • Substage Condenser Numerical Aperture

    The condenser aperture diaphragm controls the numerical aperture of the optical system of a microscope. This tutorial demonstrates changes in condenser light cones as a function of numerical aperture settings.

  • Eyepiece Diopter Adjustment

    Discover how eyepieces are adjusted for the microscopist's optimum interpupillary distance and how the diopter adjustment on each eyepiece can be made independently in this tutorial.

  • Contrast Adjustment At Low Magnifications

    Explore the utilization of the field diaphragm to control contrast in low magnification microscopy, as opposed to the condenser aperture diaphragm, which is used for contrast adjustment with high magnification objectives.

  • Aperture and Field Diaphragm Adjustment in Reflected Light

    Examine how the aperture iris diaphragm is used to vary specimen contrast and image quality, and the manipulation of field diaphragm for optimum reduction of scattered light.

  • Condenser Aperture Diaphragm Control Of Specimen Contrast

    Explore how condenser aperture diaphragm opening size affects specimen contrast at medium to high (10x through 100x) magnifications in this tutorial.

  • Reflected Light Illuminators

    In this interactive tutorial, the visitor will explore how light travels through a reflected light illuminator with the only variable being the lamp voltage, which is controlled by the slider.

Contributing Authors

Mortimer Abramowitz - Olympus America, Inc., Two Corporate Center Drive., Melville, New York, 11747.

Kirill I. Tchourioukanov and Michael W. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.

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