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Polarized Light Digital Image Gallery

Polarized light microscopy is a contrast-enhancing technique that may be utilized for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of optically anisotropic specimens. In order for polarized light microscopes to reveal details that are poorly observed using traditional microscopy techniques, they must be equipped with a polarizer positioned in the light path before the specimen and an analyzer in the optical pathway between the observation tubes or camera port and the objective rear aperture. It is then the interaction of plane-polarized light with a birefringent specimen that results in image contrast. More specifically, this interaction produces two individual wave components with different velocities that fluctuate with the propagation direction through the specimen and that are each polarized in mutually perpendicular planes. When the light components pass through the specimen, they undergo phase alterations, but are eventually recombined with constructive and destructive interference when they pass through the analyzer.

Chemical Crystals

Chemical compounds can exist in three basic phases: gaseous, liquid, or solid. In gaseous form, chemicals are comprised of weakly bonded atoms that are able to expand to fill any available space. Liquids, however, are slightly more structured than gases, the component parts that comprise them moving freely among themselves, but tending not to disperse and separate from one another. Solid compounds, which exhibit strong atomic bonding, are the most structured type of chemicals, featuring a rigid shape and a definite volume. Furthermore, many solids exist naturally as crystals, their atoms displaying distinct three-dimensional geometrical patterns. Advances in science and technology have also made it possible to create a tremendous array of artificial crystals in the laboratory, a feat that has many important commercial and industrial applications

  • AcetaminophenAcetaminophen
  • AmpicillinAmpicillin
  • Anthranilic AcidAnthranilic Acid
  • AtropineAtropine
  • AZTAZT
  • Benzeneboronic AcidBenzeneboronic Acid
  • Beta-CaroteneBeta-Carotene
  • BiotinBiotin
  • CaffeineCaffeine
  • ChloroisatinChloroisatin
  • CholesterolCholesterol
  • ClozarilClozaril
  • TitleDDC
  • DDC (2’,3’-Dideoxycytidine)DDI
  • TitleDDT
  • Dimethoxyhydroxycinnamic AcidDimethoxyhydroxycinnamic
  • EphedrineEphedrine
  • ErythromycinErythromycin
  • EstroneEstrone
  • Folic AcidFolic Acid
  • Glutamic AcidGlutamic Acid
  • Glutaric AcidGlutaric Acid
  • Liquid Crystalline DNALiquid Crystalline DNA
  • Malonic AcidMalonic Acid
  • MiconazoleMiconazole
  • MycostatinMycostatin
  • Naphthaleneboronic AcidNaphthaleneboronic
  • NicotineNicotine
  • Nicotinic AcidNicotinic Acid
  • Pantothenic AcidPantothenic Acid
  • Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA)PABA
  • ProgesteroneProgesterone
  • Retinoic AcidRetinoic Acid
  • RiboflavinRiboflavin
  • SuccinimideSuccinimide
  • TacrineTacrine
  • TaxolTaxol
  • TestosteroneTestosterone
  • Trifluoromethylbenzeneboronic Chemical Crystal
  • UreaUrea
  • UridineUridine
  • ViagraViagra
  • Vitamin B6Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin CVitamin C
  • Vitamin DVitamin D
  • Vitamin EVitamin E
  • Vitamin K3Vitamin K3

Fibers

Natural fibers may be derived from many sources, including animals, vegetables, and minerals. The use of such fibers extends back beyond recorded history, archaeological evidence indicating that wool and flax had begun being woven into fabrics by the sixth century BC. Man-made fibers, however, which are fibers chemically and structurally altered to an appreciable extent during their production, were not developed until after the Industrial Revolution. The earliest of these fibers, including rayon and acetate, were comprised of the same cellulose polymers found in many natural fibers, though in a drastically modified form. Later man-made fibers, such as nylon and polypropylene, were created through purely artificial means and came to be classed in a separate category of fibers known as synthetics.

  • Acetate FibersAcetate Fibers
  • Bombyx mori Reeled Silk FiberSilk Fiber
  • Cotton FibersCotton Fibers
  • Cuprammonium Rayon FibersCuprammonium
  • Flax FibersFlax Fibers
  • Hemp FibersHemp Fibers
  • Kenaf Bast FiberKenaf Bast
  • Milkweed FibersMilkweed Fibers
  • Nylon FibersNylon Fibers
  • Orlon FibersOrlon Fibers
  • Polybenzimidazole FiberPolybenzimidazole
  • Polypropylene FibersPolypropylene
  • Ramie FiberRamie Fiber
  • Saran FiberSaran Fiber
  • Short Asbestos FibersShort Asbestos
  • Silver Cotton FibersSilver Cotton
  • Silver Ramie FibersSilver Ramie
  • Spectra 1000Spectra 1000
  • Tencel FibersTencel Fibers
  • Thrown Raw Silk FibersThrown Raw Silk
  • Wild Silk FibersWild Silk Fibers

Hairs

Hair is a characteristic attribute of mammals. The primary purpose of the epidermal outgrowth is to provide insulation from the cold. Thus, animals inhabiting colder climes typically are covered in thicker masses of hair, often referred to as a coat or wool, than those native to warmer regions. Humans, who have little need for extra protection from the cold due to the development of clothing, are among the least hairy mammals. Indeed, humans have been intricately involved in increasing the hair growth of certain other animals in order to make them more productive contributors to the fur and textiles industries, further decreasing the necessity of human hair. Through selective breeding efforts, the output and quality of hair produced by sheep, goats, rabbits, and a wide array of other animals has been drastically improved for human purposes.

  • Alaskan Seal HairAlaskan Seal
  • Alpaca Natural Charcoal WoolAlpaca
  • Angora Goat HairAngora Goat Hair
  • Angora Rabbit WoolAngora Rabbit Wool
  • Antelope HairAntelope Hair
  • Baby Caracul HairBaby Caracul Hair
  • Badger HairBadger Hair
  • Bat HairBat Hair
  • Beaver HairBeaver Hair
  • Camel DownCamel Down
  • CashmereCashmere
  • Cat HairCat Hair
  • Chinchilla HairChinchilla Hair
  • Chinese Gray Kid HairChinese Gray Kid
  • Chipmunk HairChipmunk Hair
  • Civet HairCivet Hair
  • Cow HairCow Hair
  • Deer HairDeer Hair
  • Dog HairDog Hair
  • Elk HairElk Hair
  • Ermine HairErmine Hair
  • Goat HairGoat Hair
  • Groundhog HairGroundhog Hair
  • Guinea PigGuinea Pig Hair
  • Horse HairHorse Hair
  • Human HairHuman Hair
  • Japanese Pony Belly HairJapanese Pony Belly
  • Kolinsky HairKolinsky Hair
  • Leopard HairLeopard Hair
  • Lincoln Sheep WoolLincoln Sheep
  • Llama HairLlama Hair
  • Marmot HairMarmot Hair
  • Merino WoolMerino Wool
  • Mink HairMink Hair
  • Mole HairMole Hair
  • Monkey HairMonkey Hair
  • Mouse HairMouse Hair
  • Mouton Lamb HairMouton Lamb
  • Muskrat HairMuskrat Hair
  • Nutria HairNutria Hair
  • Ocelot HairOcelot Hair
  • Opossum HairOpossum Hair
  • Otter HairOtter Hair
  • Persian Lamb HairPersian Lamb
  • Rabbit HairRabbit Hair
  • Raccoon HairRaccoon Hair
  • Rat HairRat Hair
  • Russian Cony HairRussian Cony
  • Sable HairSable Hair
  • Scoured Sheep WoolScoured Sheep Wool
  • Sheep Wool FeltSheep Wool Felt
  • Silver Fox HairSilver Fox
  • Skunk HairSkunk Hair
  • Squirrel HairSquirrel Hair
  • Timber Wolf HairTimber Wolf Hair
  • WoolWool
  • Yak DownYak Down

Rocks and Minerals

Minerals are naturally occurring substances of inorganic origin that have a definite chemical composition and usually exhibit a crystalline structure. Plants and animals require a wide variety of minerals in order to survive on a daily basis. Minerals are also important, however, as the basic building blocks of rocks, which comprise the solid portion of the Earth and other planets. Rocks are formed through various means and are usually broadly categorized based on this fundamental characteristic. More precisely, igneous rocks are those that have solidified from magma, sedimentary rocks are those that have formed from fragments, or sediments, of other rocks, and metamorphic rocks are produced via the alteration of igneous or sedimentary rocks.

  • Actinolite SchistActinolite Schist
  • Alkalic GraniteAlkalic Granite
  • Alkalic SyeniteAlkalic Syenite
  • AmphiboliteAmphibolite
  • Amygdaloidal BasaltAmygdaloidal
  • AnhydriteAnhydrite
  • AnorthositeAnorthosite
  • ApliteAplite
  • Arenaceous ShaleArenaceous Shale
  • Arfvedsonite GraniteArfvedsonite Granite
  • ArkoseArkose
  • Augen GneissAugen Gneiss
  • Banded SandstoneBanded Sandstone
  • BariteBarite
  • BasaltBasalt
  • BauxiteBauxite
  • BiotiteBiotite
  • Biotite Hornblende GraniteBiotite Hornblende
  • Biotite in GraniteBiotite in Granite
  • Bituminous CoalBituminous Coal
  • Bituminous ShaleBituminous Shale
  • Breccia MarbleBreccia Marble
  • CamptoniteCamptonite
  • ChalkChalk
  • Chlorite SchistChlorite Schist
  • Chocolate MarbleChocolate Marble
  • Clay IronstoneClay Ironstone
  • Clay IronstoneClay Ironstone
  • CoquinaCoquina
  • Cordierite Anthophyllite SkarnCordierite
  • DaciteDacite
  • Diffusion DolomiteDiffusion Dolomite
  • Diopside GneissDiopside Gneiss
  • DioriteDiorite
  • Diorite GneissDiorite Gneiss
  • Dolomite MarbleDolomite Marble
  • DuniteDunite
  • EclogiteEclogite
  • Ferruginous ArgilliteFerruginous Argillite
  • Ferruginous ShaleFerruginous Shale
  • FlintFlint
  • FuchsiteFuchsite
  • GabbroGabbro
  • Garnet Wollastonite SkarnGarnet Wollastonite
  • GlauconiteGlauconite
  • Glaucophane SchistGlaucophane Schist
  • Granitoid GneissGranitoid Gneiss
  • GranodioriteGranodiorite
  • Graphitic MarbleGraphitic Marble
  • Gray SandstoneGray Sandstone
  • GraywackeGraywacke
  • Green SlateGreen Slate
  • GreenstoneGreenstone
  • GypsumGypsum
  • Hedenbergite SyeniteHedenbergite
  • HematiteHematite
  • Hornblende GneissHornblende Gneiss
  • Hornblende SchistHornblende Schist
  • Hornblende SyeniteHornblende Syenite
  • IjoliteIjolite
  • Kyanite QuartziteKyanite Quartzite
  • LamproiteLamproite
  • Latite PorphyryLatite Porphyry
  • LepidoliteLepidolite
  • Leucite Nepheline TephriteLeucite Nepheline
  • MaligniteMalignite
  • MargariteMargarite
  • Micaceous SandstoneMicaceous
  • Mica SchistMica Schist
  • Micropegmatite GraniteMicropegmatite
  • MonzoniteMonzonite
  • MuscoviteMuscovite
  • MyloniteMylonite
  • NephelineNepheline
  • NoriteNorite
  • NovaculiteNovaculite
  • Obsidian SnowflakeObsidian Snowflake
  • Olivine Basalt PorphyryOlivine Basalt
  • Olivine Pyroxene AndesiteOlivine Pyroxene
  • Orbicular DioriteOrbicular Diorite
  • Peperino TuffPeperino Tuff
  • PeridotitePeridotite
  • PhlogopitePhlogopite
  • PhosphoritePhosphorite
  • Pink MarblePink Marble
  • Potosi DolomitePotosi Dolomite
  • PyroxenitePyroxenite
  • Quartz ConglomerateQuartz Conglomerate
  • Quartz Monzonite PorphyryQuartz Monzonite
  • Quartz-Sericite SchistQuartz-Sericite
  • Quartzite Jasper PebbleQuartzite Jasper
  • Red SandstoneRed Sandstone
  • Red SlateRed Slate
  • Rhyolite FlowRhyolite Flow
  • Rhyolite PorphyryRhyolite Porphyry
  • SericiteSericite
  • SerpentiniteSerpentinite
  • ShonkiniteShonkinite
  • Sillimanite Garnet GneissSillimanite
  • SoapstoneSoapstone
  • Sodalite SyeniteSodalite Syenite
  • Staurolite QuartziteStaurolite Quartzite
  • Tactite SkarnTactite Skarn
  • Talc-Tremolite SchistTalc-Tremolite
  • Tholeiitic BasaltTholeiitic Basalt
  • TonaliteTonalite
  • Trachyte PorphyryTrachyte Porphyry
  • TravertineTravertine
  • TuffTuff
  • UnakiteUnakite
  • Variegated DolomiteVariegated Dolomite
  • Verde AntiqueVerde Antique
  • Volcanic AshVolcanic Ash
  • Volcanic SandstoneVolcanic Sandstone
  • Welded TuffWelded Tuff
  • White MarbleWhite Marble

Miscellaneous

In addition to chemical crystals, fibers, hairs, rocks, and minerals, a number of other types of specimen may benefit from observation through polarized light microscopy. The technique, for instance, readily reveals the striations present in many fish scales and samples of human muscle tissue, as well as the structural details of fossilized dinosaur bones. Utilization of polarized light microscopy can also reveal important information regarding harmful insects and parasites that afflict humans and other animals, such as the biting louse and the whipworm.

  • Canine Biting Louse (Trichodectes canis)Canine Biting Louse
  • Ctenoid Fish ScaleCtenoid Fish
  • Dinosaur BoneDinosaur Bone
  • Human MuscleHuman Muscle
  • Human Whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) EggsHuman Whipworm

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